Digital camera

Pioneered by Steven Sasson an engineer at Eastman Kodak Company in 1975, Digital cameras capture images using electronics which includes the utilization of components not present on its conventional camera predecessors such as a charge coupled device as an image sensor and an imaging microprocessor . The practical use of these electronic imaging devices was not realized until the early 2000's when digital cameras passed the 2.0 megapixel mark which generates pictures decent enough to match the quality of film based cameras.

Digital cameras use electronic memory devices to store images as opposed to using film on conventional cameras. Capturing light is also an entirely different process for digital cameras where a charge coupled device (CCD) or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) are used. These sensors contain components that are sensitive to photons which are later converted to electronic signals that can be interpreted a computer in binary data for further processing. Sensors basically just measure the intensity of light hitting each pixel or a photosite, this results in a light to dark hue based on each pixel's reaction to light the result of this method produces black and white images. A camera's resolution depends on the capacity of their image sensor to hold more transistors or photosites. For the display of color, a color filter is placed just in front of the image sensor. Each pixel represents a particular primary color, when light passes through them, the intensity is also measured by the image sensor whether to display a lighter shade of red or a darker blue. Once the image is captured, it will produce a mosaic image because of the color filter just in front of the image sensor. The onboard computer will try to demosaic the image through educated guesses based on an algorithm contained in the image processor. The computer averages the hues generated by the sensor and changes the color of each pixel based on nearby hues around it. The final result would resemble the image taken by the camera.

Major digital camera manufacturers
Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE : EK) US
Canon Inc. (NYSE: CAJ) Japan
Nikon Corporation (TYO: 7731) Japan
Hoya Corporation (Pentax) (TYO: 7741) Japan
Fujifilm Holdings Corporation (NASDAQ: FUJIY) Japan
Olympus Corporation (TYO: 7733) Japan
Sony Corporation (NYSE: SNE) Japan
Panasonic Corporation (NYSE: PC) Japan
Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc. (TYO: 4902) Japan
Ricoh Company, Ltd. (TYO: 7752) Japan

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